Fascial spaces do not exist in a normal healthy individual. These are latent spaces created by distention of tissues secondary to infection from the dental pulp, periodontal tissues and bone, where the infection perforates the cortical plate and discharge into the surrounding spaces.
There are 16 fascial spaces of the head and neck region divided into four subtypes. These four subtypes are the fascial spaces of the face, suprahyoid fascial spaces, infrahyoid fascial spaces, and the fascial spaces of the neck.
ROUTE OF TRANSMISSION
1.Remove the cause.
3.Institute antibiotic therapy.
4.Supportive care, including proper rest and nutrition.
Osteomyelitis means ‘inflammation of the bone marrow’, although sometimes the subperiosteal bone is mainly affected.
The incidence of chronic osteomyelitis is increasing because of the prevalence of predisposing conditions such as diabetes mellitus and peripheral vascular disease.
Treatment of osteomyelitis depends on appropriate antibiotic therapy and often requires surgical removal of infected and necrotic tissue.
Choice of antibiotic therapy should be determined by culture and susceptibility results, if possible In the absence of such information, broad-spectrum, empiric antibiotics should be administered. Surgical debridement is usually necessary in chronic cases
Osteoradionecrosis of the jaw (ORN) is a late effect of radiation therapy. Previously irradiated head and neck tissues become hypovascular and hypoxic. If in the irradiated field, the mandible may develop aseptic, avascular necrosis which can lead to infection, tooth loss, and even pathological fracture of the jaw. Osteoradionecrosis is rarely seen in patients who received less than 6000 centiGrays (cGy) of radiation and may occur years or even decades after radiation is concluded
In addition to antibiotic medication, treatment options such as
hyperbaric oxygen therapy, surgical approaches, and combined therapy with pentoxifylline and tocopherol have been recently introduced.
Hyperbaric treatments should be given adjunctively with surgical debridement and appropriate culture-directed antibiotic therapy to provide the most optimal outcome.
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